In short, yes.
Jet fuel (typically JET-A1) which is used to power aircraft with jet engines (and turboprop engines) is basically diesel fuel with extra additives. For that reason a car or truck with a diesel engine will run comfortably on airliner jet fuel although it isn’t recommended.
Similarly, piston engined aircraft (such as Cessna and Piper light aircraft) typically run on aviation gas (Avgas) with a high octane (usually 100). This fuel can be used in petrol (gas) engined cars and will they will run quite well doing so. (Petrol from the pump in a petrol station is normally of a 90-95 octane level so 100 is even better).
How about the other way around?
The fuels required to run jet engines and aircraft piston engines are of a higher quality than those needed to run road vehicles so while road fuels might work temporarily in aircraft they would most likely not keep the engines running (which wouldn’t be the best airborne situation to be in).
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